### Stars

Another utility class that can be used to draw clipped polygons.

#polygons #utility

```// Transforms. Created by Reinder Nijhoff 2019 - @reindernijhoff
//
// I have cleaned up the code of my 'polygon clipping algorithm', as used in a lot
// of my turtles. The algorithm is pretty naive and far from perfect, but it will
// work most of the time :)
//
// You can use this utility to draw polygons. The lines of a polygon (this can be
// the outline, but you're free to add extra segments of hatching to the polygon), will
// be clipped with all polygons that are already drawn.
//
// https://turtletoy.net/turtle/a5befa1f8d
//

const turtle = new Turtle();
const polygons = new Polygons();

Canvas.setpenopacity(.75);

function walk(i) {
drawStar(turtle);
return i < 1000;
}

function drawStar(turtle) {
const x = 200*Math.random()-100, y = 200*Math.random()-100,
a = Math.random() * Math.PI, s = 10 + 10 * Math.random();

const p1 = polygons.create(), p2 = polygons.create();

const cp = []; // create clip points that define the shape of the polygon
for (let i=0; i<10; i++) {
const l = s * (i % 2 ? 1 : .45);
cp.push( [x+Math.cos(a+i/5*Math.PI)*l, y+Math.sin(a+i/5*Math.PI)*l]);
}

p1.addOutline(); // polygon 1, star with outline

// polygons will be clipped with all current polygons in the polygon list

polygons.draw(turtle, p1, true); // draw polygon with outline and add to polygon list
}

////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
// Polygon Clipping utility code - Created by Reinder Nijhoff 2019
// https://turtletoy.net/turtle/a5befa1f8d
////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

function Polygons() {
const polygonList = [];
const Polygon = class {
constructor() {
this.cp = [];       // clip path: array of [x,y] pairs
this.dp = [];       // 2d lines [x0,y0],[x1,y1] to draw
this.aabb = [];     // AABB bounding box
}
// add point to clip path and update bounding box
let xmin = 1e5, xmax = -1e5, ymin = 1e5, ymax = -1e5;
(this.cp = [...this.cp, ...points]).forEach( p => {
xmin = Math.min(xmin, p[0]), xmax = Math.max(xmax, p[0]);
ymin = Math.min(ymin, p[1]), ymax = Math.max(ymax, p[1]);
});
this.aabb = [(xmin+xmax)/2, (ymin+ymax)/2, (xmax-xmin)/2, (ymax-ymin)/2];
}
// add segments (each a pair of points)
points.forEach(p => this.dp.push(p));
}
for (let i = 0, l = this.cp.length; i < l; i++) {
this.dp.push(this.cp[i], this.cp[(i + 1) % l]);
}
}
draw(t) {
for (let i = 0, l = this.dp.length; i < l; i+=2) {
t.jump(this.dp[i]), t.goto(this.dp[i + 1]);
}
}
const tp = new Polygon();
tp.cp.push([-1e5,-1e5],[1e5,-1e5],[1e5,1e5],[-1e5,1e5]);
const dx = Math.sin(a) * d,   dy = Math.cos(a) * d;
const cx = Math.sin(a) * 200, cy = Math.cos(a) * 200;
for (let i = 0.5; i < 150 / d; i++) {
tp.dp.push([dx * i + cy,   dy * i - cx], [dx * i - cy,   dy * i + cx]);
tp.dp.push([-dx * i + cy, -dy * i - cx], [-dx * i - cy, -dy * i + cx]);
}
tp.boolean(this, false);
this.dp = [...this.dp, ...tp.dp];
}
inside(p) {
let int = 0; // find number of i ntersection points from p to far away
for (let i = 0, l = this.cp.length; i < l; i++) {
if (this.segment_intersect(p, [0.1, -1000], this.cp[i], this.cp[(i + 1) % l])) {
int++;
}
}
return int & 1; // if even your outside
}
boolean(p, diff = true) {
// bouding box optimization by ge1doot.
if (Math.abs(this.aabb[0] - p.aabb[0]) - (p.aabb[2] + this.aabb[2]) >= 0 &&
Math.abs(this.aabb[1] - p.aabb[1]) - (p.aabb[3] + this.aabb[3]) >= 0) return this.dp.length > 0;

// polygon diff algorithm (narrow phase)
const ndp = [];
for (let i = 0, l = this.dp.length; i < l; i+=2) {
const ls0 = this.dp[i];
const ls1 = this.dp[i + 1];
// find all intersections with clip path
const int = [];
for (let j = 0, cl = p.cp.length; j < cl; j++) {
const pint = this.segment_intersect(ls0, ls1, p.cp[j], p.cp[(j + 1) % cl]);
if (pint !== false) {
int.push(pint);
}
}
if (int.length === 0) {
// 0 intersections, inside or outside?
if (diff === !p.inside(ls0)) {
ndp.push(ls0, ls1);
}
} else {
int.push(ls0, ls1);
// order intersection points on line ls.p1 to ls.p2
const cmpx = ls1[0] - ls0[0];
const cmpy = ls1[1] - ls0[1];
int.sort( (a,b) =>  (a[0] - ls0[0]) * cmpx + (a[1] - ls0[1]) * cmpy -
(b[0] - ls0[0]) * cmpx - (b[1] - ls0[1]) * cmpy);

for (let j = 0; j < int.length - 1; j++) {
if ((int[j][0] - int[j+1][0])**2 + (int[j][1] - int[j+1][1])**2 >= 0.001) {
if (diff === !p.inside([(int[j][0]+int[j+1][0])/2,(int[j][1]+int[j+1][1])/2])) {
ndp.push(int[j], int[j+1]);
}
}
}
}
}
return (this.dp = ndp).length > 0;
}
//port of http://paulbourke.net/geometry/pointlineplane/Helpers.cs
segment_intersect(l1p1, l1p2, l2p1, l2p2) {
const d   = (l2p2[1] - l2p1[1]) * (l1p2[0] - l1p1[0]) - (l2p2[0] - l2p1[0]) * (l1p2[1] - l1p1[1]);
if (d === 0) return false;
const n_a = (l2p2[0] - l2p1[0]) * (l1p1[1] - l2p1[1]) - (l2p2[1] - l2p1[1]) * (l1p1[0] - l2p1[0]);
const n_b = (l1p2[0] - l1p1[0]) * (l1p1[1] - l2p1[1]) - (l1p2[1] - l1p1[1]) * (l1p1[0] - l2p1[0]);
const ua = n_a / d;
const ub = n_b / d;
if (ua >= 0 && ua <= 1 && ub >= 0 && ub <= 1) {
return [l1p1[0] + ua * (l1p2[0] - l1p1[0]), l1p1[1] + ua * (l1p2[1] - l1p1[1])];
}
return false;
}
};
return {
list: () => polygonList,
create: () => new Polygon(),
draw: (turtle, p, addToVisList=true) => {
for (let j = 0; j < polygonList.length && p.boolean(polygonList[j]); j++);
p.draw(turtle);